09 febrero 2009

LA PERSPECTIVA LINEAL

UNA VENTANA ABIERTA AL MUNDO

En lengua castellana, la palabra perspectiva (derivada del latín perspicere: ver con claridad) se emplea para definir la representación de objetos tridimensionales sobre una superficie bidimensional, de tal forma que las proporciones entre lo que queda representado y los objetos reales sean del todo coincidentes. Por otra parte, cuando en Historia del Arte se usa el concepto de perspectiva lineal venimos a referirnos, en relación con la pintura y el dibujo, a los métodos de representación de la profundidad espacial. En este sentido, dicha perspectiva lineal aparece vinculada al concepto de punto de fuga, concebido como aquel en el que convergen todas las líneas de profundidad. En lo que hace a las manifestaciones artísticas, es bien sabido que hasta finales de la Edad Media no se planteó el provblema de la perspectiva en la representación pictórica (y tampoco en el relieve escultórico), recurriendo los artistas a técnicas y soluciones diversas para tratar de reflejar la profundidad del espacio representado.

Como antecedentes y paralelos más próximos a la formulación de las reglas de la perspectiva que se produciría con la llegada del Renacimiento podemos citar algunas de las obras de Giotto y, sobre todo, las realizadas por Jan Van Eyck. Como en muchos otros aspectos, su representación del matrimonio Arnolfini (1434) resulta en este tema modélica, al introducir ese espejo en el fondo del cuadro, que actúa casi como un punto de fuga y duplica el espacio pintado.

Pero es en la Florencia renacentista de comienzos del siglo XV cuando el problema de la perspectiva se abordó de una manera científica, correspondiendo a Filippo Bruneleschi (1377-1446) la formulación de las primeras reglas en 1413, basadas en su idea de que "el arte ha de imitar a la naturaleza". Tales reglas, que podemos ver ya aplicadas por Masaccio en el famoso fresco de la Trinidad (1426) fueron recogidas por Gian Battista Alberti en su tratado "Sobre la pintura" (1436) y, a partir de ahí se fueron añadiendo nuevas aportaciones procedentes de diversos pintores de la época, como Piero della Francesca, Paolo Ucello o Alberto Durero. Recordemos en ese sentido la famosa frase de Leonardo (1452-1519) según la cual "hay perspectiva allí donde todo el cuadro se halla transformado, en cierto modo, en una ventana".
.
Y fue Leonardo, precisamente, quien en su "Tratado de la pintura" definió a la perspectiva como la "ciencia de las líneas de la visión", dividiéndola en tres partes: lineal (construcción de los volúmenes), de color (difuminación de los colores en función de la distancia) y menguante (pérdida de nitidez de los cuerpos a medida que aumenta su distancia respecto al primer plano.
.
Superior: Piero della Francesca: "Ciudad ideal" (1470). Urbino, Italia.

Así pues, durante la primera mitad del siglo XV el arte pictórico dio un paso de gigante: la perspectiva acabó por incorporarse al proceder artístico de todos los pintores de la época y así siguió siendo, con otras aportaciones, hasta que a comienzos del siglo XX determinadas corrientes de vanguardia pusieran el acento en otras cuestiones dejando a un lado la perspectiva e incluso la representación de la propia realidad. Pero de momento, y durante cinco siglos, la ventana a la que se refería Leonardo se había abierto por completo.
.
Derecha: Punto de fuga en el fresco de la Última Cena de Leonardo da Vinci (1494-98).
.
Aquí tenéis una información general sobre el tema de "la perspectiva en la pintura", que podéis completar con este curso sobre "la perspectiva en el dibujo" y con este artículo sobre "aproximación a la perspectiva". De manera más específica, esta página de Clío nos acerca el tema de la perspectiva en la pintura italiana del Quattrocento.

86 comentarios:

Dánae Rain dijo...

Muy buena la explicación de la perspectiva y los dibujos muy ilustrativos. Si te parece bien se la pongo a mis alumnos que empiezo con el Renacimiento. Saludos

Juan Diego Caballero dijo...

Claro, Danae, me parece excelente. Adelante con el Renacimiento.
Saludos cordiales
JDC

clariana dijo...

El tema de la perspectiva en la pintura es muy importante, sobretodo por los aspectos que detalla Leonardo, en el dibujo, en el color... Ayer vi un programa de Arte por canal 33 de la tele, sobre El pintor Lorrain y hablaba de como trampeaba un poco la perspectiva para conseguir un efecto de fondo más lejano, en el mar, utilizaba edificios romanos que situaba en sus cuadros, según le convenía y hacía un tratamiento como teatral del conjunto. Es un programa que despierta interés por la pintura, normalmente se centra en una sola obra del pintor, pero la trata en profundidad. Saludos y gracias por el post.

Juan Diego Caballero dijo...

No hay de qué, Clariana Gracias por tus palabras y saludos cordiales.
JDC

Anónimo dijo...

esa musica de tu blog es irritante

Juan Diego Caballero dijo...

tal vez se te pase la irritación si bajas el sonido de tu ordenador. Saludos cordiales, JDC

ydacpn dijo...

Me gust'o, chevere

mariesvy dijo...

yo pienso.que tiene muy ilustrado los dibujo.los concerto estan muy bien explicado

Anónimo dijo...

muy buena esta explicacion ojala y sigan subiendo cosas e informacion asi
att: jojaqu

Manuel Mayorca dijo...

Amigo Juan Diego ..... ¿por qué se debe observar el objeto desde un punto de vista fijo?

Juan Diego Caballero dijo...

No he dicho eso exactamente, pero si se cambia de punto de observación, entonces la perspectiva será otra. Saludos cordiales, JDC

Ivonne dijo...

hola, muy buena tu explicacion, entonses se puede decir que es una perspectiva cientifica?? por hay otros tipos de perspectiva como la empirica y la atmosferica, o estas se engloban en uno mismo o comooo?????

Anónimo dijo...

hola...magnfica explicacion...suerte y saludos
me ha ayudado bastante esto =)

Armor dijo...

Hola

Felecitaciones para su blog... Muy buneo trabajo.

Hay una obra sobre la perspectiva que me parece util de mencionar, es de Erwin Panofsky la perspectiva como forma simbolica, que viene a nalisar el uso de ña perspepctiva conico como elemto simbolico de composicion por los artistas del quattrocento.

ps:
cuidado la primera ilustracion es totalmente mala de construction porque las diagonales de las cuadriculas no van al los puntos de distancias.

Anónimo dijo...

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Anónimo dijo...

Esta muy buena tu explicación. Me esta ayudando en un trabajo. Es la mejor explicación en la internet que he visto. Esperaria que hubieran blogs como estos siempre!

Anónimo dijo...

Qué buena! Si no te importa utilizaré informacion de este blog para un trabajo para el instituto, muchas gracias y mis felicitaciones!!

Unknown dijo...

de 10

Anónimo dijo...

cuales son las clases de figuras por fa lo necesito urgente

Anónimo dijo...

Jajajajaja... tu respuesta me pareció genial! Gracias por tu blog; está muy bueno. Pd.: Soy otro anónimo. :)

peter dijo...

Gabino Amaya Cacho nos vuelve a sorprender con su nuevo trabajo, el puntillismo abstracto figurativo, te invito a admirar su nueva obra, es excelente!!!

Unknown dijo...

buena esplicacion gracias

Unknown dijo...

Muchas gracias, muy buena explicacion...

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