05 febrero 2010

LA CÚPULA DE LA CATEDRAL DE FLORENCIA

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Desde cualquier perspectiva que se elija, la cúpula de la catedral de Florencia se eleva por encima del viejo caserío de la ciudad, dando a ésta su perfil más característico. Con esta obra Brunelleschi aportó interesantes novedades a la historia de la arquitectura y contribuyó decisivamente a consolidar la imagen de Florencia como centro artístico del Quattrocento italiano.

1) DETERMINAR:

a) TIPO DE OBRA: arquitectura.

b) TÍTULO:  cúpula de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore.

c) AUTOR: Filipo Brunelleschi (1377-1446).

d) FECHA: Proyecto presentado en 1418. Trabajos desarrollados entre 1420 y 1436. La construcción de la linterna, según proyecto del mismo arquitecto, se inició en 1446 y concluyó en 1461.

e) LOCALIZACIÓN: Florencia, Italia.

f) ESTILO: arquitectura italiana del Quattrocento.

2) ANALIZAR:

A) Análisis técnico:

* FORMA: cúpula de perfil apuntado y planta octogonal. Su punto más elevado alcanza una altura sobre el suelo de 114 metros Su diámetro mayor es de 41,7 metros. Su peso se estima cercano a las 37.000 toneladas.

* MÉTODO: obra arquitectónica realizada en piedra (la base), ladrillo macizo (la mayor parte de la estructura), mortero y otros materiales, destacando el mármol de los nervios y del revestimiento del tambor.

* DESCRIPCIÓN GENERAL: la cúpula de la catedral de Florencia se levanta sobre un tambor de planta octogonal realizado en piedra. Cada uno de sus ocho lados está revestido por placas de mármol (blanco y verde) y presenta un gran óculo central. Sobre este tambor se levanta la cúpula propiamente dicha que, al exterior, muestra un claro perfil apuntado en el que destacan los ocho nervios realizados con sillares de mármol blanco de cuatro metros de espesor. Todo el espacio de los plementos existentes entre aquellos está cubierto por tejas de barro planas, de color rojizo. En el punto de convergencia de los nervios se alza una linterna prismática, de ocho lados y 16 metros de altura, con contrafuertes rematados por volutas y cubierta por una estructura cónica coronada por una esfera de cobre dorado sobre la que se alza una cruz.

Sin embargo esta imagen externa oculta la ingeniosa solución aplicada por Brunelleschi para levantar la construcción sin que fuesen necesarias cimbras de madera que soportasen la estructura durante el desarrollo de las obras. A tal efecto, el arquitecto concibió en realidad una doble cúpula, exterior e interior, de perfiles apuntados, de modo que existiese un espacio vacío entre ambas, siempre constante y con un sistema de vigas de refuerzo que se extienden horizontalmente entre los nervios.

La cúpula interior, de menor tamaño, posee un total de 24 nervios construidos en ladrillo que reciben las descargas de la estructura, dividiendo el peso de su carga y llevándolo hasta el tambor. Recoge así el empuje de la cúpula externa, mientras ésta aleja a aquélla de la humedad, al tiempo que sus ocho nervios visibles al exterior carecen de verdadera función estructural. Con todo ello se reduce el peso del conjunto y se posibilita la existencia de una galería interna entre ambas cúpulas que conduce hasta la linterna.

Por último, cabe mencionar que gracias al sistema constructivo autoportante empleado en esta obra, realizado a base de anillos concéntricos de ladrillo que van sucediéndose en altura,  la cúpula presenta, vista desde el interior de la catedral, una superficie completamente plana, sin nervios de ningún tipo.

B) Análisis simbólico:

Las dimensiones de esta cúpula la convierten en la construcción más relevante del Quattrocento italiano. La obra en sí misma simboliza la importancia de Florencia como núcleo fundamental del arte renacentista durante el siglo XV y principal ciudad de la época, tratando de hacer visible el paralelismo entre la ciudad toscana y la brillante Roma de la época clásica. Al mismo tiempo, el hecho de que corone el templo catedralicio la constituye en símbolo visible de la fortaleza de la Iglesia cristiana en la sociedad florentina.

C) Análisis sociológico:

La obra de Brunelleschi es el resultado de la convocatoria de un concurso con el que se decidió el arquitecto que llevaría a cabo la nueva cúpula que cubriría el crucero del Duomo florentino, catedral realizada por Arnolfo di Cambio en estilo gótico. Aunque se otorgó el triunfo, de manera conjunta a Ghiberti y Brunelleschi sería éste quien finalmente asumiría el reto de levantar esta novedosa estructura que acabaría realzando el nombre de Florencia, en la que la familia Médici comenzaba a destacar ya como principal linaje de una ciudad a la que las actividades económicas (sobre todo comerciales y bancarias) estaban llevando ya a un momento de gran esplendor, apreciable no sólo en esta magna construcción y otras realizadas por el mismo el mismo arquitecto (basílica de San Lorenzo) sino también en otros ámbitos de la cultura que convertirían a Florencia en el centro del humanismo del siglo XV.

3) OTRAS CUESTIONES:

Cuando Brunelleschi levanta esta obra no dispone de ningún modelo cercano en el tiempo en el cual pueda inspirarse, siendo su precedente más próximo la cúpula del Panteón de Roma, con la cual mantiene sustanciales referencias. Por otra parte, la cúpula florentina inicia el desarrollo de la gran arquitectura renacentista y, más en concreto, la serie de cúpulas que tienen su remate más destacado en la que levantaría Miguel Ángel en la Basílica de San Pedro del Vaticano, ya en el siglo XVI.

Sobre esta "cúpula que no es una cúpula" hay un excelente artículo en la Wikipedia en italiano. En la misma lengua, en esta página se plantea el sistema de construcción de esta obra colosal.

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