12 abril 2011

LA CATEDRAL DE CHARTRES

EN LOS ORÍGENES DE LA ARQUITECTURA GÓTICA

El aire de la ciudad hace libre a quien lo respira. Este dicho de la época resume a la perfección el ambiente que existía en muchos burgos europeos a comienzos de los siglos centrales de la Edad Media. En ellos había ido  consolidándose poco a poco un nuevo grupo social, la burguesía, entregada a las actividades artesanales y comerciales y ajena por completo a las características del mundo feudal  que se iniciaba más allá de las murallas de la ciudad. La prosperidad de cada núcleo urbano dependía de circunstancias muy diversas, vinculadas a su propio origen, a su localización respecto a las rutas comerciales, al hecho de ser centro de peregrinaciones religiosas, etc.
  
Vista aérea de la catedral (izquierda) y fachada principal (derecha).

Este último caso era el de la ciudad de Chartres, siituada en el noroeste de Francia. Desde el siglo IX su catedral poseía una preciada reliquia: una túnica que se suponía usada por la Virgen María en el momento del nacimiento de Jesús. Este hecho había dado origen a una creciente corriente de peregrinos que llegaban a la ciudad y, al calor de tal situación, los grupos burgueses de Chartres fueron aumentando, mientras sus gremios poseían cada vez más importancia.

Durante el siglo XII la ciudad sufrió dos pavorosos incendios, el segundo de los cuales afectó también a la catedral, que quedó prácticamente destruida, aunque de forma milagrosa la valorada reliquia se salvó de las llamas. Así pues, se hizo necesaria la edificación de un nuevo templo, interés en el que coincidían el obispo de la ciudad, los poderosos grupos burgueses (interesados en mantener sus negocios comerciales gracias a los peregrinos) y la propia monarquía francesa. Todo ello hizo posible que en sólo 24 años fuese levantada la nave principal de la catedral (en 1220), aunque la finalización completa del templo se demoró hasta 1260. El edificio es uno de los primeros de Francia (y, en consecuencia, de toda Europa) realizado por completo en estilo gótico y ha servido como modelo a otras catedrales posteriores como la de Reims. Sin embargo, no conocemos quién o quiénes fueron los arquitectos responsables del proyecto.

Si analizamos su planta, la catedral  presenta tres naves (mucho más alta y ancha la central con respecto a las laterales), así como dos grandes torres en los pies, donde se encuentra la fachada principal del templo. En un extremo de la nave principal se trazó como pavimento el famoso laberinto que tanto literatura ha generado.

Además, apreciamos también la presencia de una macrocabecera, con tres ábsides y doble girola, hecho bien característico de las iglesias de peregrinación que solían acoger grandes grupos de fieles. Por otro lado, y vista en alzado, la catedral de Chartres muestra tres niveles claramente diferenciados: el de las naves con sus arquerías apuntadas, el de los triforios y, en el nivel superior, el claristorio o zona en la que se sitúan los ventanales con vidrieras que facilitan la iluminación del interior del templo, que en su práctica totalidad se cubre con bóvedas de crucería simple, sostenidas sobre pilares reforzados desde el exterior por arbotantes y contrafuertes.


Vista de la nave principal (superior derecha). Planta de la catedral de Chartres (izquierda) y laberinto en el pavimento (inferior derecha).

De esta manera, a fines del siglo XII, en un pequeña ciudad francesa cuya población apenas alcanzaba los 20.000 habitantes, se estaba contribuyendo de forma decisiva a la creación del estilo gótico. Y nada menos que mediante la construcción de un edificio imponente, con  sus 130 metros de largo, 64 de anchura máxima y 32 de altura en la nave central. Las torres superan también los 100 metros de altura. Sí, los ciudadanos de Chartres podían sentirse bien orgullosos de su nueva catedral gótica, demostración a su vez de cómo nuevos aires se estaban  extendiendo por Europa occidental. Eran aires de libertad que anunciaban la llegada progresiva de un mundo en el que las ciudades (y las actividades económicas a ellas vinculadas) tendrían cada vez una mayor importancia. Ese era el contexto en el que estaba surgiendo también la arquitectura gótica. Ya se sabe: nuevos tiempos, nuevos estilos artísticos.

Si se quiere profundizar en el conocimiento de la catedral de Chartres hay que visitar inexcusablemente este excelente sitio francés, por completo dedicado al estudio del templo. Esta otra Web presenta una  ficha con datos variados sobre la catedral: enlaces, bibliografía, etc.

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