04 febrero 2011

WILLEM DE KOONING

DE LA BROCHA GORDA AL PINCEL DE ARTISTA

Contradicciones. La vida del pintor norteamericano Willem de Kooning (1904-1993) presenta numerosas  contradicciones Así se ha dicho, por ejemplo, que una de sus obras fue la primera en ser calificada por la crítica como pintura característica del expresionismo abstracto y sin embargo él mismo nunca se sintió del todo anclado en ese movimiento pictórico, ya que su interés expresado muchas veces consistía en buscar una casi imposible fusión de expresionismo, cubismo y surrealismo.

Por otra parte, Kooning nació en Holanda, pero es reconocido como pintor norteamericano, ya que emigró a EE.UU. en 1926, instalándose de forma prácticamente definitiva en Nueva York. Además, trabajó durante algún tiempo como pintor de brocha gorda y, no obstante, está considerado como uno de los pintores más importantes de los años centrales del siglo XX. Finalmente, a lo largo de su vida (sobre todo en su juventud) realizó trabajos muy diversos, aunque desde fines e los años 30 del pasado siglo pudo dedicarse en exclusiva a la pintura.
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Willem de Kooning: "Sin título -19" (1977). Nueva York.

Durante sus primeros años en EE.UU. de Kooning realizó sobre todo pintura de carácter figurativo (paisajes, naturalezas muertas, algunos retratos), aunque tendió de forma progresiva a una evidente simplificación de las representaciones, aproximándose cada vez más al arte abstracto. Y es precisamente el abstracto (quiérase o no calificarlo como expresionismo) la  característica fundamental de la pintura de nuestro artista durante el periodo 1945-1955.

 Willem de Kooning. Izquierda: "hombre sentado" (1939). Washington. Derecha: "reina de corazones" (1943-1946). Washington.


Willem de Kooning. Izquierda: "excavación" (1950). Chicago. Derecha: "mujer-1" (1950-52). Nueva York.

Sin embargo, durante los últimos años de esa década y de manera paralela a sus composiciones abstractas, de Kooning crea un nuevo tipo de representación, centrado en la figura femenina. Comienza así una amplísima serie de obras (casi todas con el mismo título: mujer) cuyo tema será durante casi 30 años el motivo del interés central del pintor. Desde un punto de  vista formal, estas obras se caracterizan por la combinación  de elementos figurativos con otros puramente abstractos y (en sus primeros años, sobre todo) por alternar cuadros producidos en un único color con otros en los que la paleta es diversa y muestra ciertra predilección por los colores más cálidos. En todo caso, en muchos de estos cuadros dedicados a la figura femenina, el pintor norteamericano recurre al empleo de la conocida action painting, característica de una de las dos grandes corrientes del expresionismo abstracto.

 Willem de Kooning. Izquierda: "aquellos nombres estaban escritos en agua" (1975). Nueva York. Derecha: "cabeza-Nº 4" (1973).

Este tipo de pinturas de de Kooning, tan abundantes, ha dado lugar a que algunos críticos consideren la  existencia de una fuerte misoginia en la mente del pintor. Sin embargo en sus últimos años el artista (diagnosticado de Alzheimer en 1989) combinó esos temas tan habituales en él con otros de contenido más dulce, con el regreso a la pintura abstracta e, incluso con la realización de esculturas. Jamás se pronunció sobre el sentido último de su peculiar fijación en la figura femenina y su manera de tratarla. De manera que seguiremos especulando sobre este tema durante generaciones. El Arte da para mucho.

Hay una breve, pero buena introducción a de Kooning (en español) en esta Web. Ya en inglés, la Arthistory le dedica un buen apartado. También tenéis esta amplia cronología de la vida del pintor, descargable en PDF. 

64 comentarios:

JGuzman dijo...

Muy interesante.. excelente descripsion muy completa :)

Personalmente me encanta el arte y en este blog todo es muy completo, interesante... me gusto mucho .. se nota bastante la dedicacion q se tiene en este blog.

http://thepixarclub.blogspot.com/ opiniones por favor :) gracias y saludos!!

anarkasis dijo...

No se como le quedaron las otras tres cabezas, pero esa la terminó tan perfectamente diferente que no lo parece.

un saludo Juan

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Fran Amenábar Ch. dijo...

Muy interesante tu blog, me quedo mirando!!!

Saludos de ENCADENARTE

Anónimo dijo...

quiza tambien te interese este tipo de cuadros, son mas bien contemporaneos:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B35spltKp0g
saludos

Unknown dijo...

Hola todo esto es maravilloso, yo quiero aprender a pintar este tipo de pintura, resulta que yo pinto country y he grabado mi primer curso en cds se llama arte country pero ahora me piden muralismo y pintura mas artistica, espero me puedan ayudar un poco.

Bendiciones

Lina

mayte dijo...

Muchas gracias por hacer un blog tan estupendo. A mi siempre me ha interesado el arte y ahora que estoy jubilada dedico mi tiempo a intentar aprender todo lo que puedo y este blog me es de gran utilidad ya que es claro y muy completa.

rachel guti dijo...

me encanta la pintura expresionista, busque acerca de kooning porque leí sobre él en una entrevista a antonia eiriz magnifica pintora cubana, indaga sobre ella, te interesara

Rebeca dijo...

Me gusta mucho el arte, muy bueno tu blog. Aprovecho la oportunidad para comentarle sobre un artista español Gabino Amaya Cacho, este artista nos sorprende con su nueva colección; puntillismo abstracto figurativo. Visiten en Youtube lo nuevo de este excelente artista https://youtu.be/RrTMaLpPBrY

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